Wednesday, October 15, 2008

Volunti Non Fit Injuria

Tajuk posting kali ini adalah satu maxim latin berkaitan asas perundangan tort yang bermaksud "Seorang yang dengan sukarela meletakkan dirinya di dalam posisi di mana bencana boleh berlaku, dan dia mengetahui bahawa bencana boleh berlaku ekoran tindakannya itu, orang tersebut tidak boleh membuat tuntutan jika bencana itu benar-benar belaku kelak (dengan izin, " if someone willingly places themselves in a position where harm might result, knowing that some degree of harm might result, they cannot then sue if harm does in fact happen").

Maxim di atas adalah sejenis pembelaan yang sering digunapakai di dalam kes-kes Tort dan diterima sebagai satu Pembelaan Lengkap (Complete Defence). Jika defendan di dalam kes terhadapnya dapat buktikan kewujudan fakta dan keterangan yang membolehkan maxim ini digunapakai, plaintif akan hilang haknya untuk menuntut dan kes plaintf akan ditolak.

Contoh mudah yang boleh diberikan adalah seperti berikut; jika anda dengan sengaja duduk di tengah jalanraya yang sememangnya ada kenderaan lalu-lalang di atasnya, anda akan hilang hak untuk membuat tuntutan seandainya kemalangan benar-benar berlaku ke atas anda akibat daripada dirempuh oleh kenderaan yang lalu lalang di situ. Atau lebih mudah lagi, bak kata orang kampung saya "hang sendiri cari pasai, hang toksah nak komplen-lah lepaih ni pulak!"

Bagaimana pula halnya dengan senario berikut?

Sebagai contoh, anda merupakan penjawat awam antara pejabat tertinggi hierarkinya di dalam sebuah negara. Anda telah dikaitkan dengan tohmahan salahguna kuasa. Ada transkrip SMS yang sengaja dihebahkan yang menunjukkan anda dengan peguam anda telahpun bertukar-tukar pesanan ringkas yang mana ada mesej-mesej spesifik di dalamnya yang menimbulkan keraguan berkenaan faktor penyalahgunaan kuasa oleh anda sendiri.

Walaupun secara munasabahnya anda mengetahui natijah sekiranya anda berdiam diri atau tidak menerangkan sepenuhnya kepada umum apa yang sebenarnya berlaku, anda tetap tidak menafikan komunikasi sms-sms berkenaan dan sebaliknya cukup sekadar mengatakan ianya adalah peribadi, seraya membuat penafian kosong dan hambar ("bare denial") dengan mengatakan tidak wujud penyalahgunaan kuasa. Anda juga dengan suka dan relanya mengatakan adalah memadai pandangan seorang lagi penjawat awam yang lebih senior (tetapi sudah tidak dihormati langsung oleh umum) mengenai isu ini, tidak perlu ianya ditokok tambah lagi oleh anda sendiri.

"It doesn't really matter. The important thing is there is no abuse of power," he said.

"No need, no need, it is private. Whatever it is, the prime minister has said enough," he continued in the same tone.

"Why should it be of major concern? The important thing is if there is abuse of power and, if you read it carefully, there is no abuse of power, period,"

Seterusnya sepertimana yang telah dijangkakan, akibat daripada bentuk jawapan anda di atas, bencana di dalam bentuk tohmahan dan tuduhan ini kemudiannya bertambah menjadi-jadi dan semakin menggila. Musibah langsung lain juga turut bertimpa-timpa akibat tindak-tanduk anda bilamana umum, yang sebelumnya bersikap berkecuali, mula memandang serong terhadap anda, berbagai persepsi dan stigma negatif terus melekat kepada anda.

Soalan saya, sama atau tidak tindakan anda di atas dengan orang yang sengaja duduk di tengah jalanraya yang sibuk dengan kenderaan lalu-lalang di atasnya, padahal anda tahu musibah dan bencana yang bakal menimpa anda akibat tindakan berkenaan? Seterusnya, wajar atau tidak jika saya katakan bahawa anda sendiri dengan tindakan anda tersebut telah memberikan satu pembelaan sempurna ("complete defence") kepada mereka yang akan terus membuat tohmahan, memandang serong serta menaruh persepsi negatif terhadap anda?

18 comments:

Zubli Zainordin said...

Sudin: Alamak! Syekhali dia tulish Jerman...

Ismail N said...

"Laws are felt only when the individual comes into conflict with them" - Sucanne La Follette, American Politician and Feminist.

Biasalah bro kadang org kita ini "Sudah terjatuh baru nak tergadah", "Dah tersepit barulah nak buat sesuatu". Kawan tak mahu komenlah SEBAB lain si dia tu tidak mahu buat apa-apa tindakan. Itu dia punya tahu lah. Maybe bro Sakmongkol ada idea. Cite-cite la sikit.

Kawan setuju apa yg keluar di blog-blog tu serious allegation & tidak boleh dipandang ringan. Kalau si aktivis tulisan cina tu boleh saman sampai RM 30 juta (Jangan mare, kawan tak ada 30 juta, 1 juta pun tak ada, tak payah susah2 nak saman), kenapa si dia tu diam-diam aje.

Kalau tak pandang duit, at least pandanglah pandangan my learned counsel here.

Sorrylah bro, cili sikit, lately kawan geram-geram sikit, datang bulan mungkin. Ha ha....

Lawyer Kampung said...

zubli,

syekali syaer lah...al-kisah, taiyiiib, sang kancil dtg meramai2 mengadap ke bawah duli yang maha mulia sultan fir'aun.....

hahaha

Zubli Zainordin said...

Sarisffuddin, I memang mengharapkan you menulis pos ini.

Kami nii tahu apa. Melawak boleh ler.

My respondante

http://satublogtotal.blogspot.com/2008/10/lawak-lawyer-yer-ke-volunti-non-fit.html

Lawyer Kampung said...

My learned friend Ismail N, I couldn't agree more.. haha

Lawyer Kampung said...

Zubli, respon yang menarik! Hahaha.. Ada kelas!

Jokes aside, harap pembesar kita faham implikasi terhadap persepsi dan stigma negatif yang akan terus menghantui pembesar berkenaan dan parti pimpinannya akibat jawapannya atas isu ini dan versi baru "elegant silence" yang ditonjolkan beliau pula kali ini.

Zubli Zainordin said...

Sarisffuddin,

Tak sia-sia sepanjang sekolah rendah dulu, I asyik kena dengan Ustadz dan Cik gu yang sering suruh I berdiri atas kerusi.

I kalau volunti al quieta, selamat.

Tapi, tak boleh Lah. Extrovert!

Bila depa explain, I pun jawab dengan soalan jugak. Lepas itu...

Zubli, katanya, Ooo kau nak jadi Loyar Buruk ya, berdiri atas kerusi.

I cannot recall like a Lawyer can, but I can safely say, the number of times I sat on the Chair, in my primary endeavors, is about 25:75 ratio as per standing on it.

Anyways, thanks for the encouragement, I appreciate it much.

Kat sekolah dulu, you pernah tak dengar ini:

Ditelan mati ...
Diluah mati...

Serba-salah kan. Jawab salah, tak jawab salah.

Jadi, betul Lah you kata, Volunti Non Fit Injuria.

Minus the ria.

I rasa, dia ni.

Telan eurocop tercekik lah plak
Baik telan handphone.

Anonymous said...

True what you have said. Lim Kit Siang was having a field day today poking DS Najib in parliament http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/10542-kit-siang-attacks-najib

anonymous said...

there is a flaw in your reasoning.
If a person stand in the middle of the road then, the law works on you.
in najib case, not only the road was paved by someone unto him, that someone built a road on top of him when he wasn't even near the road.

"if someone willingly places themselves in a position where harm might result, knowing that some degree of harm might result, they cannot then sue if harm does in fact happen"

you see, if najib started to argue or even defend himself, here is what people will say
"kalau dia tak bersalah apasal beria benor dia menafikan nya (macam si anwar)macam ada salah je."

So herein lies a problem. If you respond, sure kena kutuk.
if you don't respond, sure kena taruk.

So what say you?

Zahar said...

Politics is all about perception.

Kalau si politikus ni takut nak jawab atau tak pandai masa menjawab nanti, akibat nya tanggapan orang (perception) akan jathuh menjunam.

Sebenarnya, tunggu apa lagi? Nak buat macam Dollah ke? Tidur...?

Lawyer Kampung said...

Anon 5.16pm, with all due respect, the keyword here is "penjawat awam" (person who holds public office). These are people who have renounced the right to live their lives screened from public observation. What they do or did not do may acquires a public importance and interest. They have assumed positions which make their doings legitimate matters of public investigation. They can't afford not to answer to the satisfaction of the public.

Again, with all due respect, it is irrelevant whether who paved the road for him, it is of my humble opinion that once he accepted the obligation to hold public office, the moment he leaves issues (such as those in questions currently)wanting, he is therefore considered to be standing in the middle of that road already.

By the way, he did answer those issues raised by the reporters present. It's the answers given that are neither here nor there. That he cannot afford to do given the circumstances currently.

Thanks for the comment though. ;-)

mamasita said...

Dear LK..either I am mentally tired because we just got back from outstation or I am really bodoh tonight!I tak paham apa you tulis!Bohoo bohoo!Explain sikit!

Lawyer Kampung said...

haha..aduuhh, same thing my missus said to me when she read it. It's as what your hubby has so eloquently put here http://sakmongkol.blogspot.com/2008/10/elegant-silence-is-death-wish.html

In a nutshell, he is asking for it with his cavalier mannerism when questions were posed to him concerning those issues.

Lawyer Kampung said...

Or better still watch this video, it's towards the end http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmerYRsCE_k

Have a good night rest mamasita. My regards to Mr. sakmongkol. ;-)

Zubli Zainordin said...

Sarisffuddin,

Thank you for the link.

I watched it.

The first part was formal and information was as usual, boring to some, perhaps not so juicy to few of the reporters.

Butt, what is interesting is the swinggling of No Need, plus, the period bit. Then, he dash out faster than an Eurocopter can.

Yes, the end part as you have said, I sense there are so much more information revealed through his non-verbal cues.

Those in NLP can perhaps write a dissertation.

belut said...

hello lawyer kampung and hai guys. assalamualaikum. i read the article. i read all the comments, over and over again. but somehow i lost in between.. lotih den!

Lawyer Kampung said...

Politics, they'll do that to you, I'll be lost too, sometimes... hahaha. Salam belut & welcome! ;-) No worries, man.

Ketok Ketampi said...

I guess it is beginning to happen. The Malaysian Insider - Anti-Najib campaign turns racial @ http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/10617-anti-najib-campaign-turns-racial